Remember ME - You Me and Dementia

Tuesday, July 31, 2007

Hugs not Drugs required by Elderly

Three major areas of concern in people with dementia are loneliness, isolation and emptiness – often the very same experiences behind attention seeking behaviour.

There are no magic drugs to cure these ailments. We know from both experience and research that the best medicines for loneliness, isolation and emptiness are love, warmth and affection. These three come together when we give someone A BIG HUG.

Basic human need
We all have an inherent need to live in loving, caring relationships and this also involves opportunities for close, genuine, physical contact. When we are with people we can trust and feel comfortable being close to, we usually feel good about both ourselves and life in general. Our self-esteem is boosted and we do not feel lonely, isolated and empty.

This basic human need for relationships remains unchanged for people with dementia. In fact, it might be even stronger for them as they have often experienced a lifting of inhibitions, which means they are ‘freed’ from learned social conduct.

Often, we find that the person who used to feel uncomfortable, tense up and shy away on very close physical contact, is now the very person to instigate a big, warm hug that lasts for a l-o-o-o-n-g time.

5 Secrets of great hugs
So what is needed for us to be able to give a warm, loving, affectionate hug? Here are 5 secrets to giving a hug that has long-lasting effect:

1. Engage your whole body, mind and spirit in the hug so that all your energy is concentrated in the embrace.
2. Give yourself permission to hold the other person really close.
3. Allow the energy to flow freely between the two of you.
4. Experience what it’s like to receive as well as to give.
5. Hold the hug for at least 7 seconds… but do not count!

How to avoid creating discomfort
When we care for people with dementia, we sometimes experience that those in the early stages tend to keep an invisible, protective ‘space bubble’ around themselves that they don’t like to be punctured.

Here are some hints to help you check whether the hug you are giving creates discomfort in the other person.

If physical contact is not right for another person:
1. The jaw sets tight
2. Eyelid movements become rapid
3. Muscles tense up
4. Breathing changes from deep, slow breathing to short, fast breaths from the upper chest area
5. The person pulls away.

Any combination, or all, of the above indicators alert you that the person is uncomfortable with this close physical contact and it is therefore not right to continue.

Hugs help us to blossom
A hug acts as a type of nourishment assisting us all – including people who have dementia – to grow and blossom.

A wise older resident once revealed a special secret name for this ultimate embrace…

a ‘huddle’, which is a cross between a hug and a cuddle. How perceptive!

A hug – the best medicine
A hug is the best medicine – a perfect tonic to lift the spirit, feed the soul and warm the heart of both the person giving the HUG and the one receiving it.

Next time you experience anxious behaviour, why not try a hug? You may find it has a most incredible healing effect on the situation.

A hug is certainly one of the best “cures” for attention seeking behaviour resulting from loneliness, isolation and emptiness. And, a huge bonus; HUGS come with no harmful side effects!

A hug delights and warms and charms.
It must be why God gave us arms.
So stretch those arms without delay
and give someone A HUG today.

- Written by Jane Verity

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Crabby Old Man

When an old man died in the geriatric ward of a small hospital near Tampa, Florida, it was believed that he had nothing left of any value. Later, when the nurses were going through his meagre possessions, they found this poem. Its quality and content so impressed the staff that copies were made and distributed to every nurse in the hospital. One nurse took her copy to Missouri.

The old man's sole bequest to posterity has since appeared in the Christmas edition of the News Magazine of the St. Louis Association for Mental Health. A slide presentation has also been made based on his simple, but eloquent, poem. And this little old man, with nothing left to give to the world, is now the author of this "anonymous" poem winging across the internet.

Crabby Old Man

What do you see nurses? .......What do you see?
What are you thinking......when you're looking at me?
A crabby old man....not very wise,
uncertain of habit ........with faraway eyes.

Who dribbles his food.......and makes no reply,
when you say in a loud voice....."I do wish you'd try!"
Who seems not to notice ....the things that you do,
and forever is losing .............. a sock or a shoe.

Who, resisting or not...........lets you do as you will,
with bathing and feeding ...... the long day to fill?
Is that what you're thinking? Is that what you see?
Then open your eyes, friends,'re not looking at me.

I'll tell you who I am ....... as I sit here so still,
as I do at your bidding I eat at your will.
I'm a small child of ten......with a father and mother,
brothers and sisters ......who love one another.

A young boy of sixteen ...........with wings on his feet,
dreaming that soon now. .........a lover he'll meet.
A groom soon at twenty heart gives a leap,
remembering the vows........that I promised to keep.

At twenty-five now .......... I have young of my own,
who need me to guide ...... and a secure happy home.
A man of thirty ......... my young now grown fast,
bound to each other ......... with ties that should last.

At forty, my young sons ........have grown and are gone,
but my woman's beside see I don't mourn.
At fifty, once more ......... babies play ‘round my knee,
again we know children ....... my loved one and me.

Dark days are upon me .......... my wife is now dead.
I look at the future ...........I shudder with dread.
For my young are all rearing .......young of their own,

and I think of the years...... and the love that I've known.

I'm now an old man.........and nature is cruel.
'Tis jest to make old age .......look like a fool.
The body, it crumbles, grace and vigour depart.
There is now a stone........where I once had a heart.

But inside this old carcass ...... a young guy still dwells,
and now and again battered heart swells.
I remember the joys.............. I remember the pain,
and I'm loving and over again.

I think of the years ...all too few......gone too fast,
and accept the stark fact........that nothing can last.
So open your eyes, people, and see,
not a crabby old man. Look closer....see........ME!

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

10 Top Memory Tactics for Elderly

10 Top Memory Tactics

Improving the memories of people with dementia does not have to involve arduous training, complicated approaches or tough regimes. Quite simply, it requires a caring attitude, an understanding of the needs of elderly people with dementia, and a belief that it is possible to improve both their quality of life and their memories.

1. Never ever say, “Do you remember?”

2. Always tell a story about the event that you’d like the person to remember.

3. Weave word pictures into your story with unusual, colourful, humorous and sensory illustrations.

4. Give the person time to recognise the event and to contribute his or her personal experiences to the story.

5. Tell the person at every opportunity:
“Your memory gets better every day.”
“It’s easy for you to remember anything you want to.”

6. Ensure that the person’s self-esteem is constantly boosted.

7. Remember: stress is memory enemy number one.

8. To avoid creating stress:
Accept the person and situations as they are.
Appreciate that things take time.

9. Nurture the brain:
Drink 8 glasses of water each day.
Get plenty of fresh air and exercise.
Take in lots of daylight.

10. Laugh long, hard and often!

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Sunday, July 29, 2007

Top 25 Reasons to Retire Early

Truth be told, there is a myriad of advantages to be enjoyed by individuals who retire early that most working stiffs can't enjoy. It's simply a matter of capitalizing on these advantages when you follow your retirement plan. To prevent you from getting overwhelmed with too many of these advantages all at one time, I have listed only 25.

These should serve as reminders why retirement can be the best time of your life.

Top 25 Reasons to Retire Early:

1. You can get up when you want to.

2. You have no daily rush hour traffic to contend.

3. You don’t have to deal with the jerks at the office anymore.

4. Where you live doesn’t have to be dictated by your employment.

5. You have lots of time to do the household projects you have been putting off forever.

6. You can spend winter in Florida, Arizona, or Hawaii.

7. You don’t have to wait for a bus on a subzero January morning.

8. You get to set your own agenda.

9. You have fewer headaches because life is simpler.

10. You can have a lot more variety in your life.

11. You don’t have to report to a boss about your actions.

12. You can go on a vacation when you want to go and not when your employer says you can.

13. You have more time for more friends in your life.

14. You can put more time into creative pursuits.

15. There are no co-workers to get envious of your accomplishments.

16. It’s easier to be spontaneous.

17. You don’t have to work through lunch hour.

18. You don’t have to take tedious business trips involving being away from home, overbooked flights, and being alone.

19. Life is less predictable from nine to five.

20. You can take a nap when the urge hits.

21. You have plenty of time to eat out with friends.

22. You have the time to do all the things you always wanted to do but never had time for.

23. By doing things when everyone else is at work, you can be much more efficient and less hurried at the same time.

24. You can take a care-free vacation without having to take some work with you.

25. More than any other time in your life, you have the opportunity to put all areas of your life in proper balance.


Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Your Magical Retirement Plan — Ensure That You Have a Retirement Plan!

Your retirement plan and my retirement plan should have something important in common and it is not what you may think it is.

So what’s your retirement plan look like? If you are like most people contemplating retirement, you may have given some thought to the financial aspects of retirement planning but absolutely no consideration to the personal aspects.

In the course of a lifetime people pick up the knowledge and skills to build careers, raise their families, and accumulate material possessions. But not much of that prepares them for life in retirement. How do they handle leisure time? How do they keep their minds in tiptop shape? How do they adjust to a life without structure and purpose?

According to a survey conducted by AIG SunAmerica, the people most likely to enjoy retirement are those who have made retirement plans. Put another way, your magical retirement plan is to have a retirement plan. This is borne out by the fact that 78 percent of people who prepare for retirement both financially and psychologically view it as "a whole new life" or a "continuation of life as it was."

Clearly, a life which is empty of purpose until 65 will not suddenly become filled on retirement. If you are still in the workforce and contemplating retirement, you should be thinking long and hard about the retirement plans you should be making. This entails contemplating the problems that may arise when you no longer have the routine, structure, and purpose of working life to rely on.

It's important to spend many pre-retirement days on your retirement plan and thinking about what you want to do when you walk out of your workplace for the last time. All too often, people put off things too long. If you don't learn how to live happily before you retire, it's very difficult to teach you how to live happily afterwards.

When happy and successful retirees are asked what advice they would offer to a person just entering retirement, most will respond with a variation of: When it comes to retirement planning, spend as much — or considerably more — time thinking about how you will utilize your days and months as you do contemplating your finances. As one retiree told a newspaper reporter, "Retirement could well represent 25 percent or more of your whole life. Why leave it to chance? A retirement plan is key."

Although virtually everyone needs a modest amount of money for essentials and a few luxuries from time to time, people who spend all their time and energy on building a huge nest egg often forget how to live happily in their working lives. They compromise their health, they neglect their friends, and they don't develop interests outside of work.

Once they retire they realize that no amount of money can buy excellent health, great friends, or the ability to enjoy leisure activities. Sadly, they wind up even less happy in retirement than they were in their working lives.

We all know that we have to prepare financially. But we have to prepare psychologically and socially as well. Ironically, too much emphasis on saving for retirement can make us forget what it takes to enjoy retirement. Being satisfied with life as a whole in your working life is your best way to prepare for retirement.

The following activities will help you to enjoy your work life and prepare you for retirement at the same time:
Retirement Planning Tips:

Establish a good work/life balance many years before you retire and zealously maintain it — refrain from working on weekends.

Maintain optimum health while you are working.

Be open to learning new things at work and in your personal life.

Have a major life purpose other than your work so that you have a purpose when you take early retirement.

Develop close friendships removed from your workplace. Maintain — i.e. don't neglect — your true friends so that they are still around when you retire.

Learn how to handle freedom. A good way is to become self-employed for at least a year or two before retirement.

Accept that money will buy style and comfort, but it won't buy you happiness.
Spend a lot of time alone while learning how to enjoy solitude.

Indulge in regular strenuous exercise so that you will be physically fit and able to enjoy retirement activities.

Take all your paid vacation time so that you learn how to be more leisurely.

Travel a lot. People who don't get to enjoy travel before retirement seldom develop a liking for it after retirement.

Don't allow your identity to be tied to your job.

Find many ways to connect with the world.

Take an unexpected day off work, and ensure that you loaf it all away to experience what it's like to be a member of the leisure class.

Take a pre-retirement course that deals with the personal issues and not only the financial issues.

Above all, don't put off being happy until you retire. People who have tried this realize that they have waited too long. The ability to be happy before you retire — regardless of your financial circumstances — is the key to having a happy retirement. In short, whether it's your retirement plan or my retirement plan, it should entail having a well-balanced life before retirement.

- By Ernie J. Zelinski

Source : Mature Market

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Saturday, July 28, 2007

Guidelines to keep kids safe from abuse

PROTECTING INNOCENCE Guidelines to keep kids safe from abuse

IF YOU are the parent of a school going child, and terrified about the stories of child abuse, sexual abuse and invasion of your child's privacy - such as the Sardar Patel Vidyalaya case - that were reported in the recent past, take heart. The Ministry of Women and Child Development is coming out with a set of guidelines and rules to cover all exigencies and is likely to notify parents, teachers and even children on such issues.

The guidelines will cover physical and medical examinations in schools and orphanages, safety arrangements to be in place for ‘after-school classes' and systems on encouraging children to report abuse of any form.
Joint Secretary, Child Welfare, Loveleen Kacker, told the Hindustan Times, "the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Rules which we had sent to the Law Ministry for approval are expected back any day. We propose to include these Dos and Don'ts as a part of the JJ Rules and will issue the gazette notification. The rules will become effective in about 30 days."

On Wednesday, HT had reported the setting up of an unprecedented high-level inquiry committee by WCD Minister, Renuka Chowdhury, who was horrified after meeting the parents of a ten-year-old boy. The victim had been sodomised for over 18 months, by three school staffers, at knife-point.

This week also saw the emergence of a case of sexual abuse of a minor girl, employed as a domestic help. Her employers had been abusing sexually till she was rescued.
A recent case, which did not classically fit the definition of intentional abuse, was reported when a study purported to be for medical research, conducted at Sardar Patel Vidyalaya in Delhi, required minor boys to strip and have their genitalia examined for abnormalities. The incident attracted much flak when some parents objected.

Kacker says that one of the new guidelines being issued is "that there shall be no physical or medical examination of a child at a school, residential school, orphanage or any care-giving institution without prior, informed, written consent of the parents or local guardian of the child." Similarly, guidelines will tell parents and teachers the manner in which a child is to be treated when he or she broaches the subject of sexual abuse.

A study commissioned by the Child Welfare Department of ministry earlier this year had found that every second child in India had faced one or more form of sexual abuse. About 22 per cent of 17,000 children interviewed for the national study had reported facing severely violent forms of child abuse.

Source : Hindustan Times,Mumbai Edition,28th July 2007

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you।

Thursday, July 26, 2007

Entire village donates eyes

About 450 families of the remote Bhimavaram village have pledged their eyes to their visually handicapped brethren। These semi-literate villagers have easily done what their urban cousins are still hesitating to do despite umpteen campaigns about the nobility of eye donation. The families have voluntarily informed the doctors of the nearby Operation Eyesight Lions Eye hospital Garividi that whenever one of them dies, the cornea pair can be taken out to give sight to someone."It is a remarkable thing," said Dr Sunil Kumar Thangaraj, superintendent of the eye hospital. "It is generally believed that people in villages are not progressive." But people of Bhimavaram proved such critics wrong by filling the pledge forms en masse.

"Initially we didn't take them seriously as some people pledge their eyes in sudden enthusiasm and later retract," said Dr Thangaraj। But this village kept its word. "Whenever someone dies, they inform us and the relatives of the deceased are convinced by the community to donate the eyes," said the medical superintendent. It was in 2005 that a team form the eye hospital came to this village and screened a film on eye donation.

This inspired the headman of the village Pericharla Sanyasi Appala Raju, 65, whose words were treated with much respect। He soon convinced the entire village to agree to donate eyes after death. Till now, 12 pairs of eyes have been donated from this village alone. "One cannot imagine life without vision and I realised that by donating our eyes we will continue to see the world through other people," said Mr Appala Raju. "After seeing the film, I recalled a woman of our village who was born blind. She suffered a lot."

The OE Lions Eye Hospital is the only institution in rural Andhra Pradesh doing cornea transplantation। "There are about 300 persons waiting for cornea transplant in these areas," said Dr Thangaraj.

According to figures put out by the Eye Bank Association of India, around 4 lakh eye pairs are needed per year in the country, but only about 25,000 are available। "This shows how rare this village is," said Dr Thangaraj.

"Some of our relatives opposed my decision to donate my wife's eyes after she died but I did not listen to them," said Mamidi Appala Naidu of Bhimavaram. "But I called the doctors. One should not only live but also give life to others." Another villager, Pydinaidu, said elders had warned them that the ghosts of those whose eyes were taken out will come in dreams and curse them. "But I have had no such dream though I donated my mother's eyes," he said.
(Courtesy: Deccan Chronicle; July 22, 2007)

Salute to Bhimavaram village

Wednesday, July 25, 2007

I’ll always be with you, says Kalam

Bidding adieu to his “beautiful and eventful” five years in Rashtrapati Bhavan, outgoing President APJ Abdul Kalam on Tuesday urged Indians to build a developed society where poverty did not exist, neither did illiteracy nor crimes against women and children। He also urged citizens to build India as a developed nation where governance was responsive, transparent and corruption free.

“I will always be with you, dear citizens, in the great mission of making India a developed nation before 2020,” Kalam said in his farewell address to the nation।

The outgoing President also cautioned that in the pursuit of economic growth, care needed to be taken to preserve the rich and diverse treasures of the country। “It is our duty for future generations. This has to be done in a much larger scale through countrywide participation of multiple institutions,” Kalam said. He added that his mission in life would be to connect a billion hearts and minds of people in the multicultural society and to embed in them the self confidence that “we can do it”.

Kalam reminded his countrymen that their mission for a developed nation should ensure education with values, without denying opportunities to meritorious candidates irrespective of societal or economic stature. He also added that India should evolve into a nation which would be the best destination for most talented scholars, scientists and investors as it grew future.

“With the ignited minds of the 540 million youth below the age of 25, which I consider is the most powerful resource on the earth, under the earth and above the earth, we have to empower the youth through value-based education and leadership,” said Kalam।

The missile-man, who earned the reputation of being a people’s President, asked Indians to resolve to work towards realising the missions of developed India 2020। He underlined that the developed nation of his dreams should be one of the best places to live in, ensuring health care to all, equitable access to energy and water to all. He envisioned a nation that was prosperous, healthy, secure, peaceful and happy and on a sustainable growth path, where agriculture, industry and service sectors worked in symphony and where the divide between urban and rural did not exist.

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you।

Tuesday, July 24, 2007

National Initiative On Care For Elderly

National Initiative On Care For Elderly

In order to cope up with the problems faced by the Aged, it is necessary that the care givers be made aware of the physical and mental conditions and problems of the elderly people so as to meet their needs as far as possible in the home setting.

Under this initiative, the NISD runs a series of Programmes/Certificate Courses to educate and train persons who can provide care to older persons in the family and community settings. The Institute is also carrying out orientation programmes in several regions of the country to generate awareness among senior citizens on the welfare facilities/programmes available for them and also sensitize government and non-government functionaries on special needs of the elderly.

Target Audience

Under this Project, the Institute runs a series of Programmes/Certificate courses to educate and train persons who can provide care to older persons in the family and community settings. The Institute is also carrying out orientation programmes in several regions of the country to generate awareness among Senior Citizens on the welfare facilities/programmes available for them.

To know more click:

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Tea is a boon but without milk

Tea is a boon but without milk

Previous studies have shown that drinking tea is a boon for cardiovascular health, but now researchers have found that the beneficial effects of the drink are 'totally wiped out' by putting milk।

German researchers publishing their findings in the online version of the European Heart Journal show that a group of proteins called caseins found in milk prevent the dilation of blood vessels which occurs when pure black tea is consumed।As a result they argue that those who drink milk with their tea should seriously consider going without on occasion, in order to boost the healthiness of their heart. 'There is a broad body of evidence from experimental and clinical studies indicating that tea exerts antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and vasodilating effects, thereby protecting against cardiovascular diseases.

'As worldwide tea consumption is second only to that of water, its beneficial effects represent an important public health issue। But, up to now, it is not been known whether adding milk to tea, as widely practiced in the UK and some other countries, influences these protective properties. So, we decided to investigate the effects of tea, with and without milk, on endothelial function, because that is a sensitive indicator of what is happening to blood vessels,' senior researcher Dr Verena Stangl, professor of Cardiology (Molecular Atherosclerosis) at the hospital, said. In the study, reported in the European Heart Journal, 16 women drank half a litre of freshly brewed tea, tea with skimmed milk, or plain boiled water. Tests were taken on an artery in the forearm for two hours afterwards.

They showed that drinking black tea significantly improves the ability of the artery to relax and expand -- but adding milk completely blunts the effect।

'We found that, whereas drinking tea significantly increased the ability of the artery to relax and expand to accommodate increased blood flow compared with drinking water, the addition of milk completely prevents the biological effect,' Dr Mario Lopez, who also worked on the study, said.
Stangl also said their findings could also have implications for cancer, against which tea has also been shown to be protective. 'Since milk appears to modify the biological activities of tea ingredients, it is likely that the anti-tumour effects of tea could be affected as well. I think it is essential that we re-examine the association between tea consumption and cancer protection, to see if that is the case,' she said.

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.


Activities relating to Sports and Physical Education are essential components of human resource development, helping to promote good health, comradeship and a spirit of friendly competition, which, in turn, has positive impact on the overall development of personality of the youth. Excellence in sports enhances the sense of achievement, national pride and patriotism. Sports also provide beneficial recreation, improve productivity and foster social harmony and discipline.
2. A Resolution on the National Sports Policy was laid in both Houses of Parliament in August, 1984. The National Sports Policy, 1984 was formulated with the objective of raising the standard of Sports in the country. The National Education Policy, 1986 also incorporated the objectives of the Policy in so far as the Education Sector was concerned. The National Sports Policy, 1984 provided inter-alia, that the progress made in its implementation would be reviewed every five years to determine the further course of action, as may be necessary, following such review.
3. Over the years, it has transpired that even as the National Sports Policy, 1984 encompasses various facets in respect of encouraging sports in the country, the implementation of the same is not complete and leaves much to be desired. The goals and objectives laid down in the Policy are yet to be substantially realized. A need has, therefore, been felt to reformulate the National Sports Policy in more concrete terms, spelling out the specific measures required to be taken by the various agencies, which are involved, in various ways, in promoting sports in the country.
4. In terms of the National Sports Policy, 2001, the Central Government, in conjunction with the State Government, the Olympic Association (IOA) and the National Sports Federation will concertedly pursue the twin objectives of "Broad-basing" of Sports and "Achieving Excellence in Sports at the National and International levels". Sports activities, in which the country has potential strength and competitive advantage, need to be vigorously promoted. Towards this end, Sports and Physical Education would be integrated more effectively with the Education Curriculum.
5. While the broad-basing of Sports will, primarily remain a responsibility of the State Governments, the Union Government will actively supplement their efforts in this direction and for taping the latent talent, including in the rural and tribal areas. The Union Government and the Sports Authority of India (SAI), in association with the Indian Olympic Association and the National Sports Federations, will focus specific attention on the objective of achieving excellence at the National and International levels.
6. The question of inclusion of "Sports" in the Concurrent List of the Constitution of India and introduction of appropriate legislation for guiding all matters involving national and inter-state jurisdiction, will be pursued.
7. Considering the key role of sports in national life and for inculcating national pride in the younger generation, the objective of broad basing, that is, universalisation or mass participation in Sports assumes special significance. It is imperative to ensure that the educational institutions, Schools and Colleges in both rural and urban areas; the Panchayati Raj Institutions, Local Bodies, the government machinery, the Sports Associations and Industrial Undertakings, as also the various Youth and Sports Clubs, including those of the Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS) throughout the country are, and remain, fully associated with this Programme. Efforts will be made to promote and encourage women’s participation in sports. The Union and State Governments, as well as the Sports Federations/Associations will endeavour to promote a "club culture" for the speedier development of Sports in the country.
8. In the National Sports Policy, 2001, high priority will be accorded to the development of Sports in the rural areas to harness the available talent and potential. In this context, the Village Panchayats/Gaon Sabhas as well as rural Youth and Sports clubs will be mobilized to facilitate development of the requisite infrastructure and for the identification of talent through an appropriate competition structure in the rural areas as also in the disadvantaged and remote parts of the country which appear to merit special consideration under various schemes including for the North East. Efforts will also be made for tapping such potential as swimming in coastal areas and Archery in tribal areas. The available talent will be nourished and actively supported. Geographically disadvantaged Regions will be extended additional support for the promotion of Sports. There has been a strong tradition of Indigenous and traditional games in practically all parts of the country through ages. Indigenous games will be promoted through schemes related to rural sports.
9. The integration of Sports and Physical Education with the Educational Curriculum, making it a compulsory subject of learning up to the Secondary School level and incorporating the same in the evaluation system of the student, will be actively pursued. A National Fitness Programme would be introduced in all Schools in the country, steps initiated to augment the availability of infrastructure, including play fields/ sports equipment and action taken to provide Physical Education Teachers in educational institutions through, inter-alia, the training of selected teachers in these disciplines. Specialized Sports Schools may also be set up. An appropriate Inter-school and Inter- College/University competition structure would be introduced at the National, State and District levels.
10. The availability of adequate sports facilities throughout the country is basic to the development and broad-basing of Sports. In addition to the Union and State Governments, the sustained involvement of other agencies, including the Panchayati Raj Institutions, Local Bodies, Educational Institutions, Sports Federations/Associations. Clubs and Industrial Undertakings will be enlisted in the creation, utilization and proper maintenance of the Sports infrastructure. While existing play fields and stadia, both in rural and urban areas, will be maintained for sports purposes, the introduction of suitable legislation may be considered for providing open areas to promote sports activities. Steps would be taken to evolve low cost functional and environment-friendly designs in this regard, so that maximum benefits could be derived through relatively low levels of investment. Efforts will also be made to optimally utilize the available infrastructure and manpower and Special Coaching Cams organised, during the vacations, to provide intensive training to talented sports persons, even as they pursue their academic work.
11. The Union Government would focus attention on achieving Excellence in Sports at the National and International levels. Various sports disciplines will be prioritized on the basis of proven potential, popularity and international performance. Particular emphasis will be placed on the development of such priority disciplines and the prioritization reviewed, from time to time. The IOA and the State Governments would also accord higher priority to such disciplines. In planning the development of various disciplines, the genetic and geographical variations within the country would be taken into account so that in areas of potential, in particular disciplines, timely steps may be taken to harness the existing and emerging talent. Centers of excellence will be set up to identify and train outstanding sportspersons including sports academies where young and talented sports persons will be groomed to achieve higher levels of performance in the international sports arena.
12. It is recognized that the management and development of Sports are the function of the Indian Olympic Association and the National Sports Federations, which are Autonomous Bodies and who, in turn, have affiliated State level and District level Associations. The Government and other concerned agencies and the Federations/Associations have, therefore, to work together harmoniously and in a coordinated manner to fulfil the objectives of the National Sports Policy, 2001. At the same time, the Indian Olympic Association and the various Sports Federations/Associations will need to demonstrate orientation towards the achievement of results and ensure tangible progress in the field of Sports, keeping which in view, model bye-laws/organizational structures may be formulated for the NSFs, in consultation with them, and with due regard to the Olympic Charter, so as to make the functioning of the Federations/Association transparent, professional and accountable.
13. Acknowledging the importance of National Championships for developing competitive spirit and for talent-scouting, it would be incumbent on the Federations/Associations to hold Annual Championships in various disciplines in all categories, viz, Seniors, Juniors and Sub-Juniors (for both Men & Women) at the District, State and National levels. Each National Federation would draw up the Annual National Calendar of these events sufficiently in advance, every year, which would be compiled and published by the IOA. Greater emphasis will be placed on promoting the development of Sports amongst the juniors and sub-juniors and the more talented amongst them identified for Special Training and Support.
14. Effective participation in International Events, especially the Olympics, Asian and Commonwealth Games, is a matter of National Prestige. Participation in these Events has, so far, largely been restricted to those disciplines in which creditable performance is anticipated. The contingents to represent the country in such events need be chosen in due time, in the light of performance and promise, in National Championships and elsewhere. Long Term Development Plans (LTDPs) will be prepared for each Sports discipline, incorporating details of standard of performance, targeted levels of performance, participation in competitions at national and international levels, sports exchanges, scientific support and the holding of international competitions in the country. The implementation of the LTDPs will be reviewed periodically and the same would be continued, as a Rolling Plan year after year. The release of Government assistance would be considered on the basis of performance relating to the LTDP in question.
15. The significance of scientific-back up to Sports stands well established. Accordingly, action will be initiated to strengthen this area, in accordance with international standards. Experts would be associated with each Sports Discipline or Groups of Sports Disciplines, on a continuing basis, to provide the requisite support in terms of nutrition, psychology, medicine, pharmacology, physiology, bio-mechanics and anthrapometry as well as other branches of Sports Sciences. Suitable mechanisms would be introduced to achieve co-ordination between the laboratory and the field, that is, between the Coaches and the Sports Scientists, and particular care taken to ensure nutritional support to talented sports persons and to sustain their mental health and competitive spirit.
16. Appropriate research and development measures will also be initiated for the promotion of sports and to impart special skills to promising sports persons so that they are enabled to give of their best in international and other prestigious competitions. The SAI and other public and private organisations will be involved in such research and development programmes. The SAI and the NSFs would take coordinated steps towards the modernisation of the infrastructure required for the training of sports persons and to provide them with scientific support for achieving Excellence in Sports.
17. Suitable measures will be initiated to ensure access to sports equipment of high quality. While the approach to import of equipment would, no doubt, bear the long term interests of the indigenous sports goods manufacturers in mind, the import of raw materials as well as finished sports goods of international quality should be permissible under Open General License. Similarly, Sports Federations/Associations and other recognized Organization involved in Sports Promotion, as also eminent Sports persons, may be extended exemption of customs Duty. The matter relating to exemption from sales Tax for Sports Goods and of free movement of raw materials and finished sports goods in the country would be pursued with the State Governments.
18. The Policy recognizes that the standards of coaching and scientific back up in the country and those pertaining to umpires, judges and referees needs to be upgraded. Concerted steps will be taken to train Coaches, Sports Scientists, Judges, Referees and Umpires, in line with international standards. In addition to developing such expertise on an institutional basis, within the country, the deputation of promising persons to Training Courses, Conferences. Seminars, workshops and Tournaments abroad, so that they remain abreast of relevant developments in their fields, will be encouraged. Coaches would receive rigorous training for up-gradation of skills and may also be deputed overseas for the purpose.
19. Incentives provide recognition and financial security to distinguished sports persons, during and after their sporting careers, and also motivate the youth in the serious pursuit of sports activities. Adequate assistance will be extended for Insurance Cover and Medical Treatment in the event of such eventuality/requirement. Job reservation for sportspersons as per the prescribed categories will continue.
20. Social Recognition, the Conferment of Awards and Honours at the National, State, and District levels, incentives in the form of Cash Awards and Avenues of Employment will be important elements of the National Sports Policy, 2001. Alongside sports persons, suitable incentives will be provided to Coaches, Judges and Referees for developing skills and enriching their experience.
21. The Policy recognizes the inter-dependence and inter-relationship between the Sports and Tourism sectors, the integrated development of which is capable of generating very substantial revenues and ensuring a high volume of tourist traffic from within the country and from overseas, while simultaneously promoting a sports & fitness culture in the country. Adventure Sports, in particular, have great potential for the promotion of tourism. Towards this end, the concerned Ministries/Departments of the Union and State Governments, that is those handling Sports, Tourism and related subjects, will strive to draw up joint/unified Plans and Proposals for various parts of the country, with due reference to the possibilities in the North Eastern Region, and to execute these programmes in a systematic and coordinated manner.
22. Insufficiency of financial resources has been a major constraint in promoting sports in India. While the Union and State Governments, would need to arrange higher budgetary provisions, special efforts are equally called for to mobilize corporate funds for the development of Sports in the country. Accordingly, corporate Houses would be approached and encouraged to adopt and support particular disciplines (as well as sports persons) in the longer term; for this purpose. Tripartite Agreements between the Government and the concerned Sports Federations and the Corporate Houses may be entered into for different Sports Disciplines. In the context of the Policy of Economic Liberalization, the Private/Corporate sectors would be more closely involved with the promotion of Sports, in general, and to build and maintain Sports infrastructure, in particular, with requisite emphasis on the latest technologies. A suitable package of incentives may also be evolved for this purpose. Eminent sports persons of established merit will be encouraged to set up and manage Sports Academies.
23. It may be recalled that a National Sports Development Fund has been created with initial contribution of the Union Government. All contributions (from within and outside the country) to this Fund have been extended 100% exemption from Income Tax. The mobilization of resources for the Fund will be strenuously pursued and the feasibility of exempting the incomes of Sports Federations and Sports persons (from sources other than employers) from payment of Income Tax explored.
24. The revenues generated by the sale of Broadcasting Television Rights of Sports Events will be shared between the concerned Sports Federation/Association and the Broadcasting/Telecasting agency, public or private, on mutually agreed terms, through appropriate revenue sharing arrangements.
25. The role of Mass Media is central to the popularization of Sports amongst the people at large. The Electronic Media, including the National Broadcasters, the Private Channels and the Print Media would be suitable mobilized for strengthening a Sports Culture in the country.
26. As a resurgent India confidently enters the New Millenium, Sports (and related activities) will be increasingly utilized as a medium for promoting cooperation and friendship in the Region, as also globally. Sports Exchange Programmes will be pursued with all friendly Nations, with emphasis, on the one hand on Advance Training for Sports persons and Coaches, Scientific Support, the latest Research Aids and Development of Infrastructure, and earning laurels for the country, in Sports and Games, on the other.
27. The National Sports Policy, 2001 would be reviewed, periodically, in order, inter-alia, to incorporate changes/modifications which may be necessitated by technological and other advancements in the field of Sports.

Warm Regards,
Sailesh Mishra

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Sunday, July 22, 2007

Pension policy returns to dip as people live longer

Pension policy returns to dip as people live longer
The risk of policyholders `living too long’ has increased dramatically for insurance companies. Trends show that life expectancy has increased sharply in the last decade compared to the whole of last century. The implications of this for policyholders are that post-retirement, regular income through pension schemes will become much more expensive. According to Richard Willets, UK’s leading expert in mortality, the last decade has seen the sharpest rise in longevity. In the UK, for instance, a 65-year old was expected to have a life expectancy of 18 more years 10 years ago. This has now gone up to 22-23 years. For older people, life expectancy is growing up at the rate of five hours a day. Today, in India, there is not much of a demand for annuity products — policies that provide a stream of regular income against a lump sum payment — because of relatively low returns. A bank deposit fetches a return of 9.5% along with return of capital. As against this, life annuities without return of capital provide less than 9.5%. But, the demand for annuities will pick up sharply in coming years. A fourth of premium for life insurers comes from sales of pension policies. According to the law, policyholders are required to use the proceeds of the policy to buy annuities on maturity. The more the increase in life expectancy, the less is the annuity the policyholder will get. According to Mr Willets, the longevity has improved because of advances in medicine, particularly those pertaining to heart ailments. “There has been a significant shift in focus in respect of deployment of resources. In the past, most of the resources have been towards reducing infant mortality and fighting infectious diseases that killed young people,” said Mr Willet. “In the last decade, there has been substantial progress in addressing ailments that affect mortality as people get older,” he added. An indication of this is the increased expenditure in Statin — a blood-thinning drug that reduces chances of stroke. In the UK, Statin usage has been growing 30% every year with total prescriptions crossing 30 million doses for a population of 60 million. He points out that Richard Boyle, the National Director for Heart Disease and Stroke in the UK, has forecast that premature death on account of heart ailments can be eliminated in 10 years. Similarly, the impact of breast cancer on mortality has been reduced despite an increase in the number of cases. This is because of a nationwide screening campaign that has helped in early detection. Mr Willets is the longevity director of Paternoster, a newly-formed life insurance company in the UK which has offshored its actuarial work to India. He is currently engaged in helping Paternoster identify life expectancy for each individual customer that would help the company price products more efficiently than if it were to go by general mortality tables applicable for the general population. According to Paternoster India CEO V Balamurugan, it is feasible to go down to individual levels because of two advantages India has. First is the access to a large pool of actuarial talent, and second is the cost efficiency. While the positive side of life expectancy is that life insurance premium comes down, most people are ill-prepared to meet the downside. Studies have shown that people tend to undershoot life expectancy by five years. By doing this, they underestimate their savings requirements.


Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

List of activities for seniors

List of activities for seniors:

Senior Citizens are the asset to the society.Their experience and knowledge is useful for all of us.

Elders should live as usual,they should keep themselves busy and active.We age more if our brain is idle.It is no longer inevitable to age and decline. It is entirely in their hands how happily and healthily they can grow older, not "get old." Its Productive Ageing and Successful Ageing.

Senior should keep on meeting people specially of their age,and share and interact with others.
There are NGO's and Sr Citizens Groups ,where many such kind of activities are held to make their life much happier and better.

Following are some of activities which can help our elders to live golden moments:
Developing hobbies
Playing Bridge
Laughter Club
Memory Games
Computer Education
Social Work

For more information you can also visit the website of Dignity Foundation : and
Harmony India:

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Take a deep breath and ....relax

Take a deep breath and ....relax

Many articles and books have been written about stress management; yoga and meditation programs abound, all professing to teach one to relax, to calm down and to reduce stress. Personally, the simplest technique I have discovered is to allow myself a few minutes of deep breathing, preferably with my eyes shut and sitting upright in a chair with both feet on the ground. (This is actually more relaxing than slumping on a sofa.) With my young baby sitting on my lap or breastfeeding, I find that if I intentionally deepen my breathing, he also relaxes and finds it easier to lengthen his breath and fall asleep.
While this simple relaxation technique often works, sometimes a little extra assistance is required. I reach for my favourite relaxing essential oil, dab a little on a tissue and inhale from it deeply, using the scent to remind me to unwind. It appears that two things happen when we use aromatherapy oils to help us relax. The first is that compounds in some oils, like Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), have been shown to temporarily block the brain cells responsible for keeping us alert. This allows the brain's normal 'calm-down' response to happen more quickly. The second is that when we use a particular aroma repeatedly to help us relax, we sort of hypnotise ourselves to relax in association with the scent. This is a psychological phenomenon, similar to the famous Pavlov's dog experiment.
Some people find that the scent of Lavender makes them feel sick or gives them a headache, so other oils that have a reputation as relaxing oils are: Roman Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis) with its sweet apple-like scent; Bergamot (Citrus bergamia), which is used to flavour Earl Grey tea; Sandalwood (either the East Indian Santalum album or West Australian Santalum spicatum) and Vetivert (Vetivera zizanoides). The last two are heavy, woody smelling oils, perhaps more preferable to men than women, but it is really up to the individual. Of course you have to like the smell or it won't help you feel relaxed.
Another way of using the oils, either for oneself or with people in our care, is to use a diffusion method - either an electric vaporiser or by putting a couple of drops of the chosen oil onto a cottonwool ball and placing it near a heater. This method is useful for helping people relax prior to sleep, as the whole room takes on the aroma, and reminds them by association that now is the time to sleep.
By E. Joy Bowles, PhD

Forget yourself for others, and others will never forget you.

Choosing the Right Aged Care Home for People with Dementia

Choosing the Right Aged Care Home for People with Dementia

The following checklist can help you to find the home most suited to you or the person with the dementia whom you support. This guide can also be useful when comparing different facilities and the services they offer.When choosing a home, there are many aspects to consider beyond the outer appearance of a newly built, state-of-the-art aged care facility. The word “home” says it all. Is the facility you have in mind home-like? Various levels of care are available from assisted home care to residential care when living at home is no longer possible. The right choice will vary according to each person’s stage of dependence, mobility or dementia.

Types of care:Home and Community Care (HACC) – is a Government initiative and assists with support services that can enable elderly people to continue living independently in their own homes. Services include: nursing and personal care, home help and maintenance, meals on wheels, counseling, support, transport, ancillary services and assessment.Flexible care – Enquire through Department of Health and Ageing or Aged Care Australia about the various extended aged care packages available to help care for people with dementia in their own homes. Packages provide access to various services, including nursing and personal care assistance.Respite Care – short-term accommodation to give carers a break or the opportunity to travel, relax and recharge their spark. Respite care can also sometimes act as an introduction to residential care. Low Care – hostel type accommodation is designed to provide individuals with some assistance with personal care yet remain relatively independent. High Care – nursing home accommodation is suitable for people requiring frequent nursing and needing personal assistance with eating, toileting, bathing, dressing and mobility.Dementia specific facilities – provide care at hostel and/or nursing home levels and feature secure physical environments specifically designed to meet the needs of people with dementia.

Some tips to help you find the most suitable residential aged care facility:
1. Make an appointment to visit the facility of your choice.
2. Ask the name and position of the person who will be showing you around.
3. Keep in mind that the emotional care of people with dementia is far more important than a luxurious d├ęcor.
4. Walk around and listen to how staff members interact with the residents:
5. Do they treat the residents with respect or do they talk down to them?
6. Do they talk over the residents as if they are not there?
7. Do they allow and encourage residents to maintain their independence and use the abilities and skills they still have?
8. Do they react positively to residents’ needs and wishes; or are these needs overridden?
9. Are the residents’ self-esteem boosted?
10. Is the atmosphere one of kindness and love; or is it one of rules and routines?
11. Are residents offered activities to help them improve and maintain memory?
12. Do staff speak to one another courteously?
13. Do staff hurry?
14. Is the atmosphere stressed?
15. Are you made to feel welcome?

Practical considerations:

1. Is the facility home-like and welcoming?
2. What is the attitude of staff (at all levels) assisting you during your visit?
3. Does each resident have a secure space for their personal and special belongings?
4. Do the same staff members continuously care for the people with dementia, or do the staff rotate within the facility?
5. Does the person showing you around ask genuine and interested questions about special needs and preferences?
6. If entry level is low care, is there access to move into high care/nursing home?
7. Can a family member stay overnight if needed?
8. Are you welcome to look all around the home, or only designated areas?
9. Is the home fresh, clean and well maintained?
10. What specific care and assistance will be provided?
11. Can residents bring their own furniture and decorate their rooms to suit individual tastes?
12. Are residents allowed to hang ornaments and/or frames on their room walls?
13. Is there easy access to safe, sun smart outdoor areas?
14. How many staff does the facility have and are they registered nurses, enrolled nurses, trained carers?
15. How many staff provide care overnight?
16. Will the resident be accompanied to hospital should the need arise?
17. Can residents keep their own doctor?
18. Are meaningful day-to-day activities both allowed and encouraged?
19. Does the facility offer a well-implemented, positive activity program for all resident levels?
20. Are single rooms available?
21. Are bathrooms en-suite or shared?
22. Is the facility close enough to allow for visits from family and friends?
23. Does the facility allow pets?
24. Are individual religious and cultural affiliations accommodated?
25. Is it clearly evident to someone with dementia how to find toilets and assistance within the facility?
26. What outside services are provided e.g. podiatry, hairdressing, physiotherapy etc?
27. Do you understand the costs and agreements associated with care? Agreements to enter aged care are legally binding documents and as such you should seek advice from a qualified legal representative before signing.

You are also within your rights to ask prospective facilities the following:Accreditation record – Each home is subject to accreditation tri-annually. Can you view the facility’s accreditation report?Complaints Management – How are these handled within the home/hostel? Is there a register where you can view previous concerns and complaints? (Check to see if there are common complaints or if the same issues keep arising.)


The National Youth Policy, 2003

1.1. The National Youth Policy, 2003 reiterates the commitment of the entire nation to the composite and all-round development of the young sons and daughters of India and seeks to establish an All-India perspective to fulfill their legitimate aspirations so that they are all strong of heart and strong of body and mind in successfully accomplishing the challenging tasks of national reconstruction and social changes that lie ahead.
1.2. The earlier National Youth Policy was formulated in 1988. The socio-economic conditions in the country have since undergone a significant change and have been shaped by wide-ranging technological advancement. The National Youth Policy - 2003 is designed to galvanize the youth to rise up to the new challenges, keeping in view the global scenario, and aims at motivating them to be active and committed participants in the exciting task of National Development.
1.3. The Policy is based on recognition of the contribution that the youth can, and should, make to the growth and well-being of the community and endeavours to ensure effective co-ordination between the policies, programmes and delivery systems of the various Ministries, Departments and other Agencies. The thrust of the Policy centres around “Youth Empowerment” in different spheres of national life.
1.4. For India to occupy her rightful place in the Comity of Nations and to meaningfully discharge the manifold obligations thereto, it would be imperative to ensure the effective pursuit of youth development programmes which promote personality development and Qualities of Citizenship and enhance commitment to Community Service, Social Justice, Self-reliance, National Integration and Humanism, an inclusive view of the entire universe as enshrined in our ancient scriptures. The Policy, therefore, recognizes these inter-related values and principles as its basic premise.
2.1 Since our national progress depends, crucially, on the ways and means through which the youth are encouraged and nurtured as a positive force for national progress and are enabled to contribute to socio-economic development, it is essential for an appropriate policy framework to be in place to harness the energies of the youth in this task.
2.2 Recognizing, further, that youth development is a multi-faceted concept, it is equally necessary that all the relevant agencies, including the Ministries and Departments of the Central and State Governments, and local self Government bodies and Panchayati Raj institutions devise their plans and programmes bearing these aspects and features in mind. The Policy will facilitate a multi-dimensional and integrated approach in this behalf, with the State Agencies striving to accelerate the formulation and implementation of programmes.
2.3 An important indicator of the success of such programmes being the stake of the beneficiaries in the results of the same, this Policy also stresses that the youth of the country should enjoy greater participation in the processes of decision-making and execution at local and higher levels. Such participation would be facilitated by identifiable structures, transparent procedures and wider representation of the youth in appropriate bodies, with the emphasis being more on working with the youth than for the youth.
3.1 This Policy will cover all the youth in the country in the age group of 13 to 35 years. It is acknowledged that since all the persons within this age group are unlikely to be one homogenous group, but rather a conglomeration of sub-groups with differing social roles and requirements, the age group may, therefore, be divided into two broad sub-groups viz. 13-19 years and 20-35 years. The youth belonging to the age group 13-19, which is a major part of the adolescent age group, will be regarded as a separate constituency.
3.2 The number of youth in the age group of 13-35 years, as per the 1991 Census, was estimated at about 34 crores, and about 38 crores in 1997, which is anticipated to increase to about 51 crores by the year 2016. The percentage of youth in the total population, which, according to the 1996 Census projections, is estimated to be about 37% in 1997, is also likely to increase to about 40% by the year 2016. The availability of a human resource of such magnitude for achieving socio-economic change and technological excellence needs commensurate infrastructure and suitable priorities to maximize its contribution to National Development.
The objectives of the National Youth Policy are:
4.1 to instil in the youth, at large, an abiding awareness of, and adherence to, the secular principles and values enshrined in the Constitution of India, with unswerving commitment to Patriotism, National Security, National Integration, Non-violence and Social Justice;
4.2 to develop Qualities of Citizenship and dedication to Community Service amongst all sections of the youth;
4.3 to promote awareness, amongst the youth, in the fields of Indian history and heritage, arts and culture;
4.4 to provide the youth with proper educational and training opportunities and to facilitate access to information in respect of employment opportunities and to other services, including entrepreneurial guidance and financial credit;
4.5 to facilitate access, for all sections of the youth, to health information and services and to promote a social environment which strongly inhibits the use of drugs and other forms of substance abuse, wards off disease (like HIV/AIDS), ensures measures for de-addiction and mainstreaming of the affected persons and enhances the availability of sports and recreational facilities as constructive outlets for the abundant energy of the youthl;
4.6 to sustain and reinforce the spirit of volunteerism amongst the youth in order to build up individual character and generate a sense of commitment to the goals of developmental programmes;
4.7 to create an international perspective in the youth and to involve them in promoting peace and understanding and the establishment of a just global economic order;
4.8 to develop youth leadership in various socio-economic and cultural spheres and to encourage the involvement of Non-Governmental Organizations, Co-operatives and Non-formal groups of young people; and
4.9. to promote a major participatory role for the youth in the protection and preservation of nature, including natural resources, to channelise their abundant energies in community service so as to improve the environment and foster a scientific, inquisitive reasoning and rational attitude in the younger generation and to encourage the youth to undertake such travel excursions as would better acquaint them with cultural harmony, amidst diversity, in India, and overseas.
5.1 Youth empowerment: The Policy recognizes that in order for the youth to effectively participate in decision making processes, it is essential that they are better equipped with requisite knowledge, skills and capabilities. Towards this end, the Policy envisions the following:
Attainment of higher educational levels and expertise by the youth, in line with their abilities and aptitudes, and access to employment opportunities accordingly;
Adequate nutrition for the full development of physical and mental potential and the creation of an environment which promotes good health, and ensures protection from disease and unwholesome habits;
Development of youth leadership and its involvement in programmes and activities pertaining to National Development;
Equality of opportunity and respect for Human and Fundamental Rights without distinction of race, caste, creed, sex, language, religion or geographic location and access to facilities relating to Sports, Cultural, Recreational and Adventure activities.
5.2. Gender Justice: The Policy recognizes the prevailing gender bias to be the main factor responsible for the poor status of health and economic well-being of women in our society and that any discrimination on grounds of sex violates the basic rights of the individual concerned and it, therefore, stands for the elimination of gender discrimination in every sphere. The Policy enunciates that:
(a) Every girl child and young woman will have access to education and would also be a primary target of efforts to spread literacy.
(b) Women will have access to adequate health services (including reproductive health programmes) and will have full say in defining the size of the family.
(c) Domestic violence will be viewed not only as violation of women’s freedom but also as that of human rights.
(d) All necessary steps should be taken for women’s access to decision-making process, to professional positions and to productive resources and economic opportunities.
(e) Young men, particularly the male adolescents shall be properly oriented, through education and counseling to respect the status and rights of women.
5.2.1 The Policy further enunciates that
(a) Action would be pursued to eliminate all forms of discrimination in respect of the girl child, negative cultural attitudes and practices against women, discrimination against women in education, skill development and training, and the socio-economic exploitation of women, particularly young women;
(b) Concerted efforts will be made to promote a family value system that nurtures a closer bond between men and women, and ensures equality, mutual respect and sharing of responsibility between the sexes.
5.3 Inter-Sectoral Approach: The Policy recognizes that an inter-sectoral approach is a pre-requisite for dealing with youth-related issues. It, therefore, advocates the establishment of a coordinating mechanism among the various Central Government Ministries and Departments and between the Central and State Governments, and the community based organisations and youth bodies for facilitating convergence in youth related schemes, developing integrated policy initiatives for youth programmes and for reviewing on-going activities / schemes to fill in gaps and remove unnecessary duplication and overlap.
5.4 Information & Research Network: Youth development efforts in India have been hampered by lack of adequate information and research base. The Policy, therefore, suggests the establishment of a well organized Information & Research Network in regard to various areas of concern to the youth to facilitate the formulation of focused youth development schemes and programmes. The Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development (RGNIYD) will serve as the apex Information and Research Centre on youth development issues. The National Youth Centre and the State Youth Centres will also serve as store houses of information for the youth. At the micro level, the Youth Development Centres under the NYKs will be equipped to serve as information centres for the local youth.
The Policy acknowledges that the youth of the country should be assured of the following:
6.1 Appropriate education and training which enables them to render themselves socially useful and economically productive;
6.2 Gainful employment and adequate opportunities for personal development and advancement for those not currently in employment;
6.3 Requisite shelter and a clean environment, as also basic health services of quality;
6.4 Social defence and protection from all manner of exploitation;
6.5 Suitable participation in decision-making bodies which are concerned with issues relating to the youth and with socio-economic and cultural matters;
6.6 Sufficient allocation of public funds for youth development;
6.7 Access to Sports, Physical Education, Adventure and Recreational opportunities.
The Policy exhorts the youth to fulfill their responsibilities, as are enumerated below:
7.1 to contribute to sectoral, family and self development and to promote social and inter-generation understanding and gender equality;
7.2 to extend respect to teachers and elders, parents and the family, in consonance with our cultural norms and traditions;
7.3 to uphold the unity and integrity of the Nation, maintain peace and harmony, observe Fundamental Duties and respect the Fundamental Rights and Freedoms guaranteed under the Constitution to all sections of the people;
7.4 to respect others’ faiths and beliefs in the religious, cultural and social spheres and to different schools of thought and to neither exploit nor be instrumental in the exploitation of fellow citizens and other persons, especially women;
7.5 to promote appropriate standards of ethical conduct in individual and social life, to maintain honesty and integrity of character and be committed to fight against all forms of corruption, social evils and practices.
7.6 to preserve and protect the Environment; and
7.7 to commit themselves to create a discrimination and exploitation free environment and to devote their time and energy in nation building activities.
The Policy recognizes the following areas as key sectors of concern for the youth:
Training and Employment;
Health and Family welfare;
Preservation of Environment, Ecology and Wild life;
Recreation and Sports;
Arts and Culture;
Science and Technology; and
Civics and good Citizenship.
8.1 Education
8.1.1. The Policy acknowledges that the objective of providing appropriate education, which enables the youth to develop into good citizens of the country, should also suitably influence relevant actions of the Government and public behaviour.
8.1.2 It is recognized that the need of the educational system to instill, in the youth, an abiding sense of patriotism and in values oriented towards the unity and integrity of the country, equally calls for the elimination of violence in all forms, adherence to good moral and ethical values and respect and reverence for India’s composite culture and national heritage.
8.1.3 This Policy emphasizes that the learning process should minimise the stress and strain, which the system may exert on students, especially in the early years. The thrust of the educational system, particularly in the early years, ought to be on learning, rather than on merely qualifying in examinations and memory-based tests. The Policy lays emphasis on outdoor learning as an integral part of the educational process and on Physical Education, Sports, Games and Adventure activities.
8.1.4 Academic institutions should be equipped with adequate sports and recreational facilities.
8.1.5 Education, above the secondary level, should have a high degree of vocationalisation so as to enable the youth to acquire such requisite skills as would augment avenues of employment for them; technical institutions need to be strengthened and their number increased keeping an eye on our country’s emergence as a major force in information technology.
8.1.6 There needs to be greater uniformity in the educational system and standards in various parts of the country.
8.1.7 Closer links should be developed between the educational system and prospective employers, on an institutional basis and career counselling should be a part of the educational system, from the secondary level onwards. Programmes need to be undertaken for proper dissemination of information, amongst young men and women, in respect of career options.
8.1.8 Programmes should be undertaken to upgrade the existing skills of young artisans of traditional handicrafts and other products and for those who may wish to take up the same as a vocation. Education system should also have a rural orientation to address the varied needs of agriculture, agro – processing and other areas of rural economy.
8.1.9 Educational curriculum in schools should include information on health issues, including reproductive health, HIV-AIDS and also on population issues.
8.1.10 Youth clubs and Mahila Mandals should be encouraged to involve their members in programmes like “Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan” and Total Literacy Campaign for universalisation of primary education, and spread of literacy and to organize activities to promote book reading habits among the youth.
8.2 Training and employment
8.2.1. This Policy recognizes that the question of employment is, at present, of very serious concern for the Indian youth and that several social issues arise out of widespread unemployment and under-employment of the youth.
8.2.2. This Policy further acknowledges that the incidence of unemployment is more pronounced in the rural areas and in urban slums and calls for appropriate strategies and commensurate efforts to deal with it.
8.2.3. The current trends suggest that the growth rate of the labour force has been higher than the growth rate of population and that the growth rate of employment has not been in proportion to GDP growth.
8.2.4. The critical issues in this area include a mis-match between skills-requirement and employment opportunities, low technology levels, low wages and low productivity, occupational shifts in employment, under-employment owing to seasonal factors, excess labour supply in relation to demand, migration of the labour force from the rural to urban areas and limited participation of women in the work force, especially in the organized sector.
8.2.5. The incidence of unemployment has been accentuated by advances in technology and communications, to tackle which, opportunities for self-employment need to be created. Schemes to provide ”seed money” to assist viable enterprises initiated by the youth need to be drawn up. A network of youth skill training centres would need to be established to build up the capacities of the young people for income generation activities.
8.2.6. Adequate funding for both pre-job and on-the-job training for youth by government as well as other stake holders should be ensured. For proper vocational guidance and career counselling, schools and colleges should pay adequate attention to this aspect as part of their co-curricular activities.
8.2.7. Government, in conjunction with youth organisations, will develop training programmes for young people in the rural areas, based on their needs. Special schemes would also be developed for young women, youth with disabilities and for young people returning from the urban to the rural areas, alongside flexibility in training systems and collaboration between training institutions and potential employers.
8.2.8. Co-operative schemes involving Self Help Groups of young people in the production and marketing of goods and services would be encouraged and strengthened, with government support. Banks and Co-operatives would be advised to make identifiable allocations of soft credit to young people and their Self Help Groups and micro-credit adopted as a strategy to enable young women and men, in the rural areas, to undertake fruitful economic ventures.
8.2.9. A Data Bank will be created to keep abreast of the employment opportunities being generated, as also the availability of young people, with the requisite skills, for the same;
8.3 Health
8.3.1 The policy recognises that a holistic approach towards health, mental, physical and spiritual, needs to be adopted after careful assessment of the health needs of the youth.
8.3.2 As per the youth population projections (based on the 1991 Census), about 21.4% of the total population in 1996 was estimated to be in the age group of 10-19 years; of these, about 78.4% lived in the rural and the remaining ( 21.6% ) in the urban areas. The mean age of marriage in the rural areas was 21.56 years for males and 16.67 years for females. In the urban areas, the mean age for marriage was 24.32 years for males and 19.92 years for females. In other words, most women in India are married during the age of adolescence.
8.3.3 The areas of focus of this Policy, in so far as health of the youth is concerned, are:
General Health;
Mental Health;
Spiritual Health;
AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Substance Abuse; and
Population Education.
(a) General Health
8.3.4 Nutrition : The policy recognises an urgent need for greater concentration on nutritional studies on the youth – particularly the young women and the adolescents and advocates all measures to lessen the differences between their daily average intake of energy and proteins and the recommended daily intake allowances ( RDA). The Policy particularly emphasises on reduction of this gap, which is wider among the children of growing age as per Indian National Nutritional Profile, 1998.
8.3.5 The growth rate standard of Indian adolescents, measured in terms of Body Mass Index ( BMI ) viz. ratio between weight and height, is lower in India than in most of the industrialised nations. Iron deficiency and anemia are common, especially in girls. The growth-related requirements of adolescents often continue beyond the teenage years and overlap with the nutritional needs of early pregnancy, which has an impact on the health of new-born children, in addition to the mothers. Discriminatory practices in respect of girls also lead to lack of adequate nutritional intake, which results in malnutrition, anaemia and other micro-nutrient deficiencies in young girls which are more noticeable in the rural areas. These concerns need to be effectively tackled through appropriate measures, including awareness-generation programmes.
8.3.6 The Policy lays emphasis on the importance of hygiene and sanitation in promoting a healthy society. All efforts should be made to inculcate in the youth a sense of hygiene and sanitation right from early education. The youth on their part should be encouraged to organise mass awareness campaigns in their neighbourhood to promote better hygiene and sanitation. Their services should also be utilised in creating better sanitation facilities for the community, both in rural areas and urban slums.
8.3.7 Health education and health consciousness: This Policy strongly recommends introduction of health education in the curricula of regular / formal education in higher classes of schools and colleges, in non-formal education centres and in every other organised interaction with the youth. The policy advocates that every youth of India should clearly understand the what, why and how of good health within his or her socio – economic parameters. A policy of minimum physical exercise for all should be propagated.
(b) Mental Health
8.3.8 Lack of proper education often leads to mental depression. In an environment that is becoming complex and competitive by the day, the chances of young minds being afflicted with depression are ever rising. This is particularly so, among adolescents who are showing higher incidence of suicidal traits than even before. Against this background, this Policy advocates a system of education which teaches the youth to fight back rather than give in. It also recommends establishment of state–sponsored and free counseling services for the youth, particularly the adolescents.
8.3.9 Adolescence is a period of change and, consequently, one of stress, characterized by uncertainties in regard to identity and position in the peer group, in society at large and in the context of one’s own responsibilities as an adult. The compulsions of parental approval often encounter the emerging aspirations of independence. Adolescents exhibit mood-swings and might even indulge in self-destructive activities, such as use of alcohol, drugs and violence; they need, therefore, to be treated with openness, understanding and sympathy and offered creative channels to harness their energies. This would necessitate training and capacity building of all professional groups including NGOs working with the youth belonging to this age group.
(c) Spiritual Health
8.3.10. Health of the mind should be coupled with the health of the spirit. Towards this, yoga and meditation should be propagated widely among the youth. Yoga, in particular, should be taught in the schools.
(d) HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Substance Abuse
8.3.11 The Policy recognizes that the percentage of young people falling prey to substance abuse, STDs and HIV / AIDS being relatively higher, these issues need be tackled as, primarily, confronting the younger generation, particularly the adolescents who are most affected. Being highly impressionable, and, therefore, prone to high risk behaviour, they require proper education and awareness about reproductive health issues, including safe sexual behaviour. The Policy, therefore, advocates a two-pronged approach of education and awareness for prevention and proper treatment and counselling for cure and rehabilitation. It further enjoins that information in respect of the reproductive health system should form part of the educational curriculum. The Policy also stresses the need for establishment of adolescent clinics in large hospitals and similar projects in rural areas to address the health needs of the young adults.
(e) Population Education
8.3.12 The Policy recognises that a growing population is a serious national problem that has negated many of our achievements in the field of development. The youth have an important role to play in this sphere and can create greater awareness in this regard through community programmes.
8.3.13 Responsible sexual behaviour can be promoted through education in family-life issues and control of population. Pregnancy and childbirth, in the adolescent period, particularly for young women below 17 years of age who are living in unhealthy conditions and without adequate access to health services, has been a serious bio-medical hazard. The adolescent age-group has to be sensitised in regard to the correct age for marriage and for the first pregnancy, sufficient spacing between births and limiting the size of the family. It is conceded that in spite of several initiatives taken by the Government, the social climate enjoins the young couple to produce their first child soon after marriage. This scenario is unlikely to change in the near or medium term. Entering into matrimony at the right age assumes critical importance in this context, apart from its healthy impact in checking the high rate of population growth. It is equally imperative that young adults be sensitised to their role and responsibilities as responsible parents. Ante-natal, natal and post-natal services of quality are also necessary for young women.
8.3.14 The following strategies should be adopted to provide better health services to the youth :
Government , in co-operation with the Youth Organisations and NGOs, would promote the establishment of Youth Health Associations, at the grass-root level, to ensure proper sanitation, health and hygiene and would, in cooperation with Youth Organisations, develop Family Welfare Services for young people and provide counselling services;
Programmes would be instituted, with the support of Youth Organisations and NGOs, to sensitise medical and para-medic students on the issues of health and hygiene and also in the IEC component of various disease control programmes; and
Young people will be recognised as “Health Promoters”.
8.3.15 The youth will also be involved in a structured manner in the following health-related activities:
Construction of lavatories, water points, dispensaries and wells; cleaning of public places and related environment protection activities; community surveys and research on health-related matters;
Safe blood donation, nutrition and food production projects;
Information, education and prevention campaigns in respect of health concerns, such as malaria, malnutrition, STD (including HIV / AIDS), teenage pregnancy and abuse of alcohol and other harmful substances;
“Peer Education” will be an important element in promoting health services.
8.3.16 This Policy urges upon universal accessibility of an acceptable, affordable and quality health care service to the youth throughout the length and breadth of this country to be made available in close proximity to their places of residence. The youth should have this accessibility for themselves as well as for other vulnerable age groups whom they could help out.
8.4.1 The Policy recognises that children and young people are particularly vulnerable to the ill effects of environmental degradation. Unplanned industrialisation, which leads to pollution and to degradation of rivers, forests and land, adversely affects the young who have a vital stake in a healthy environment.
8.4.2 Considering the importance of community involvement in preservation of the environment, the Policy exhorts young people to play an increasingly significant role in mobilising the public, at large, in this national endeavour. The Policy also advocates motivating the youth to develop respect for Nature and to lead lifestyle which are less resource consumptive and more source conservationist.
8.4.3 The Policy recognises that women are seriously affected by environmental degradation resulting, inter-alia, in lack of potable water and scarcity of fuel wood. The migration of men to cities to seek employment often isolates the womenfolk who are left to fend for themselves.
8.4.4 Having regard to the above, the Policy highlights the following lines of concrete action:
Greater emphasis should be placed on environmental education in school curricula and training programmes should be arranged to inform teachers on environmental issues so as to enable them to instruct the youth suitably. Environmental education should also be a part of the outdoor learning process;
The participation of Youth Organisations in gathering environmental data and in understanding environmental issues would be encouraged as a means of improving their knowledge of immediate surroundings and accentuating personal concern towards proper environmental management;
Motivating the youth to establish nature and adventure clubs in villages and towns with a view to creating mass awareness towards protection of the country’s bio – diversity, and to work with local bodies and NGOs in planning and management of our forests, rural water bodies, common land and natural resources through active local participation.
Vocational training, in recycling of materials and managing waste materials, would be promoted so as to ensure that more young people may find a local source of livelihood and, at the same time, arrest degradation of the environment; and
Youth Organisations, at the grass root level, would be assisted in provision of training in agro-forestry, agriculture and traditional agricultural practices.
Promotion of both traditional and alternative technologies for water conservation and water harvesting through Youth organisations.
8.5 Sports and Recreation
8.5.1 Having recognised that the overall objective of the Policy is the all-round development of personality of the youth and noting that Sports, Physical Education, Adventure, Recreation and related activities might often be overlooked, this Policy strongly supports these activities as important areas of human resource development. No system of education could be considered successful, unless it addresses the urges and aspirations of the youth to be creative and appreciative of the manifold facets of nature and of social life.
8.5.2 The Policy, accordingly, enunciates that:
Sports and games be promoted as a mass movement by making it a way of life;
Sports, Games and Physical Education including Yoga, should be compulsory in all Educational Institutions;
Every educational institution should have adequate facilities for recreation, adventure and sports activities, including playgrounds;
Provision be made for common play grounds in the master plans of all civic and municipal areas;
At least one-fifth of the time spent by a student in an educational institution should be earmarked for outdoor activities;
Geographically disadvantaged areas would be extended additional support for the promotion of Sports and Games;
Rural, traditional and indigenous sports would be accorded special attention and it would be the responsibility of the Panchayat Institutions with the help of local youth organisations to develop and maintain infrastructure for this purpose. The involvement of organised youth bodies such as youth clubs under the NYKS, the volunteers of the NSS and the Scouts & Guides in the creation and maintenance of sports infrastructure will go a long way in reducing the high cost of such infrastructure;
A National Youth Festival will be held each year, starting at the Block level and culminating at the National Level;
Youth Hostels would be constructed in as many places of historical and cultural interest as possible, to promote youth tourism;
Youth Organizations devoted to such activities will be encouraged; and
Adventure activities among the youth be promoted to inculcate qualities of leadership, resilience, courage, discipline and love for nature and the environment.
8.6 Arts and Culture
8.6.1 Activities connected with Arts and Culture provide recreation to individuals, sharpen their sensitivities and afford a vehicle to inculcate desirable ideals and values. The Policy recognizes the importance of Arts and Culture in a holistic approach to youth development and that Young People need to be sensitised to the great heritage of our country and provided with opportunities to understand and follow pluralistic forms of culture.
8.6.2 This Policy, therefore, enunciates the following:
The youth should be better enabled to imbibe the rich traditions and culture of India and sensitised to the need to preserve and enrich this extraordinary heritage. This will be sought to be achieved inter-alia through
i. inclusion of learning and appreciation of the country’s rich heritage in art, architecture, music and dance etc. in the educational curricula at the school level; ii. encouraging and facilitating through financial assistance in association with concerned State Govt./PRIs etc., visits to ancient monuments/heritage sites during which attempt would be made to impress upon the young people the need for preservation of our ancient heritage by involving them in voluntary work for cleaning up the sites and surroundings and educating and motivating the local youth to protect such monuments against vandalism etc. The Ministry of Railways and State STUs will be persuded to offer concessional fares for such organised educational trips and for organising special services to such places, particularly during holidays; iii. Encouraging and facilitating the visits of well known artists to educational institutions to impart lessons in appreciation through demonstrations/workshops/performances; iv. Encouraging and facilitating in association with State Govts./PRIs/NGOs attendance of young persons at performances by well known artistes in their respective areas.
A National Youth Centre would be established to provide young people with a common platform where they can express their opinions and views on various issues concerning them. Such a Youth Centre will also provide them with ample scope to give exposure to their creative genius and abilities in the fields of various cultural expressions like fine arts, music, theatre, film etc. State Youth Centres would be established, on similar lines, in the various States.
8.7 Science and Technology
8.7.1 As the adaptation of scientific and technological principles and developments, to maximise the use of local resources, are central to empowerment in the quality of life, the Policy recognises the importance of emerging, modern technologies, particularly in the field of information technology and electronic media, in enabling the youth to perform and achieve in all sectors of their interest.
8.7.2 The Policy also recognises that young scientists and technologists should be extended adequate facilities for research and that the contribution of the private sector in this field should be encouraged.
8.7.3 The National Youth Policy, therefore, provides for:
Review of policies in respect of the School Curriculum and the non-formal education sector so that Science may be popularised amongst all sections of the youth;
Support to providing exposure to the youth to the scientific temper and way of life;
Development of mechanisms within the system to identify and train gifted youth, as early as possible, in the fields of science and technology;
The best and the most positive use of information and communications technology, as well as all forms of media, including the electronic media, for youth development as well as for promoting and protecting the richness of our culture;
Promoting a multi-sectoral approach involving, inter-alia, the private sector and NGOs, to orient the youth towards scientific and technological studies and research;
Ensuring co-ordination between the various Government Ministries/Departments and Scientific Organisations/Institutions dealing with youth development programmes;
Upgrading science curricula in institutions of learning to inculcate the scientific approach amongst all sections of the younger generation;
Linking the projects of the young scientists to the problems of the people and ensuring better interaction between labs and the industry;
Documentation of the large repository of physical and knowledge based resources within the country to prevent their piracy by vested interests.
8.8 Civics and Citizenship
8.8.1 Human behaviour is significantly shaped by norms and values, which are a basis for attitudinal growth. The dominant features in the Indian Society, which impinge on the cultural and other values of young people, include areas such as family life, education, work and occupational activities, gender, class and ethnic relations, religion, mass communication, artistic and creative expression, sports, recreation, politics and the economic environment.
8.8.2 Anti-social behaviour is a manifestation of the absence of well-accepted values, attitudes and norms in the individual and in society which can reflect itself in crime, violent action, breakdown of parental authority in family life, corruption in public life, obscenity in the media, indiscipline in schools and in sporting activities and low productivity at the workplace.
8.8.3 The Policy, therefore, envisages the following strategies:
Embodying instruction in the values like respect for teachers and parents, adolescent and the aged besides religious tolerance, and compassion towards the poor and the needy. The concept of family as the basic and most important asset of Indian Society will be strengthened.
To motivate the youth to resist fragmentation of society on the basis of caste, religion, language and ethnicity and for promotion of democratic values enshrined in our constitution.
To mobilise the youth to create local pressure groups within the community to fight corruption at all levels and to ensure that the benefits of development reach those for whom they are intended and are not siphoned of by middlemen and the powerful.
Laying emphasis on the economic and social security of the youth belonging to underprivileged sections of our society and those who are mentally and physically challenged.
This Policy will accord priority to the following groups of young people:
Rural and Tribal Youth;
Out-of-school Youth;
Adolescents particularly female adolescents;
Youth with disabilities;
Youth under specially difficult circumstances like victims of trafficking; orphans and street children.
The Policy envisions the following implementation mechanism:
All Ministries/Departments of the Union Government and the State Governments, particularly in the social sector will strive to make identifiable allocations in their budgets for youth development programmes
A broad based National Committee on Youth Policy and Programmes is contemplated to review and assess various programmes and schemes focusing on youth. It will also advise the Government on measures for implementation of the Plan of Action of the National Youth Policy;
The Union Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports (with the guidance of this Committee) will be the Nodal Ministry for all such programmes and schemes and will oversee the implementation of the provisions of this Policy;
An effective mechanism to coordinate the activities of the Central Ministries/Departments, the State Governments and Community and Youth Organisations, would be evolved in order to facilitate timely execution of youth development programmes; and
A National Youth Development Fund will be created through contributions, including from Non-Governmental Organisations, which would be utilised for youth development activities. Income Tax exemption would be sought for contribution to the Fund.

The National Youth Policy, 2003 would be reviewed after 5 years from the date of commencement of implementation.